Thanksgiving is a great holiday because of its cultural, religious and political heritage, and that political heritage should not be forgotten.
Most Americans are at least vaguely familiar with the cultural and religious background to Thanksgiving. The story of the Pilgrims gathering with the Indians and celebrating a feast of the harvest in 1621, embellished in later accounts, is what would come to mind for most Americans.
But the cultural and religious background of thanksgiving celebrations is much older than America. The Old Testament book of Deuteronomy describes the Feast of Weeks, which was a celebration of the harvest. Such celebrations were common to many ancient cultures. During the Middle Ages, most European countries celebrated the Feast of the St. Martin of Tours on Nov. 11 as a special day of thanksgiving for the harvest.
The idea of a day of thanksgiving to God for his blessings is an essential part of Thanksgiving tradition.
There is also an important political history to Thanksgiving in America.
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Thanksgiving celebrations in America during its colonial era were sporadic and based on local traditions. The first national celebration of Thanksgiving was a political act: it was called by the Continental Congress in 1777 and offered thanks for a military victory. In five of the next six years (1782 excluded), national days of thanksgiving were celebrated in December.
The next national day of Thanksgiving was called by George Washington in October 1789 and was accompanied by a proclamation of Thanksgiving.
He said, in part, "Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor, therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these states to the service of that great and glorious Being."
He thanked God "for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a nation, for the signal and manifold mercies -- which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war -- for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty -- and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us."
Washington's proclamation focused on "political" blessings, not the harvest.
It was not until 1863 that Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national day of Thanksgiving the following year. And even Lincoln's reasoning was rooted in politics.
His 1864 proclamation reads, in part, that God "has pleased to animate and inspire our minds and hearts with fortitude, courage, and resolution sufficient for the great trial of civil war into which we have been brought by our adherence to the cause of Freedom and Humanity — therefore I ‘appoint' the last Thursday in November as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to the Almighty God."
Thanksgiving became legally established as the fourth Thursday in November in 1941.
The holiday has more significance than turkey and football; the political history of Thanksgiving shows it was established for Americans to be thankful to God for blessings given to the nation. Give thanks this Thanksgiving for our national blessings.
Adapted from the writing of Dr. Michael Coulter, chair and professor of political science and humanities at Grove City College in Grove City, Pa.